DNA Diet Scientific References

The DNA Diet is backed by science and our team has referred to a wide range of scientific papers to inform the DNA Diet Plan. What follows is a list of the scientific papers and resources we have referred to during development of the DNA Diet. References are listed in no particular order.


Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index. Nat Genet. 2010 Nov;42(11):937-48. doi: 10.1038/ng.686. Epub 2010 Oct 10.

Predicting Polygenic Obesity Using Genetic Information. Ruth J.F.Loos1A. Cecile J.W.Janssens. Cell Metabolism Perspective. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2017.02.013

Association of a Genetic Risk Score With Body Mass Index Across Different Birth Cohorts. Stefan Walter, PhD; Iván Mejía-Guevara, PhD; Karol Estrada, PhD; et al Sze Y. Liu, PhD; M. Maria Glymour, ScD. JAMA. 2016;316(1):63-69. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.8729

Inverse relationship between a genetic risk score of 31 BMI loci and weight change before and after reaching middle age. G Rukh, S Ahmad, U Ericson, G Hindy, T Stocks, F Renström, P Almgren, P M Nilsson, O Melander, P W Franks & M Orho-Melander. International Journal of Obesity volume 40, pages 252–259 (2016)

A genetic risk score combining 32 SNPs is associated with body mass index and improves obesity prediction in people with major depressive disorder. Hung et al. BMC Medicine (2015) 13:86. DOI 10.1186/s12916-015-0334-3

Fried food consumption, genetic risk, and body mass index: gene-diet interaction analysis in three US cohort studies. BMJ 2014;348:g1610

Impact of Genetic Variants on the Individual Potential for Body Fat Loss. Cha S, Kang JH, Lee JH, et al. Nutrients 2018, 10, 266; doi:10.3390/nu10030266

Physical activity and genetic predisposition to obesity in a multiethnic longitudinal study. Reddon H, Gerstein HC, Engert JC, et al. Sci Rep. 2016;6:18672. Published 2016 Jan 4. doi:10.1038/srep18672

Gene-Diet Interaction and Precision Nutrition in Obesity. Yoriko Heianza and Lu Qi. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 201718(4), 787; doi:10.3390/ijms18040787

A Genetic Risk Score Is Associated with Weight Loss Following Roux-en Y Gastric Bypass Surgery. Bandstein M, Voisin S, Nilsson EK, et al. Obes Surg. 2016;26(9):2183-2189.

Improving adherence to healthy dietary patterns, genetic risk, and long term weight gain: gene-diet interaction analysis in two prospective cohort studies. Wang Tiange, Heianza Yoriko, Sun Dianjianyi, Huang Tao, Ma Wenjie, Rimm Eric B et al. BMJ 2018; 360 :j5644 

FTO genotype and weight loss: systematic review and meta-analysis of 9563 individual participant data from eight randomised controlled trials. Livingstone Katherine M, Celis-Morales Carlos, Papandonatos George D, Erar Bahar, Florez Jose C, Jablonski Kathleen A et al.  BMJ 2016; 354 :i4707

Can genetic-based advice help you lose weight? Findings from the Food4Me European randomized controlled trial. Carlos Celis-Morales, Cyril FM Marsaux, Katherine M Livingstone, Santiago Navas-Carretero, Rodrigo San-Cristobal, Rosalind Fallaize, Anna L Macready, Clare O’Donovan, Clara Woolhead, Hannah Forster, Silvia Kolossa, Hannelore Daniel, George Moschonis, Christina Mavrogianni, Yannis Manios, Agnieszka Surwillo, Iwona Traczyk, Christian A Drevon, Keith Grimaldi, Jildau Bouwman, Mike J Gibney, Marianne C Walsh, Eileen R Gibney, Lorraine Brennan, Julie A Lovegrove, J Alfredo Martinez, Wim HM Saris, John C Mathers; The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 105, Issue 5, 1 May 2017, Pages 1204–1213,

Starch Digestion–Related Amylase Genetic Variant Affects 2-Year Changes in Adiposity in Response to Weight-Loss Diets: The POUNDS Lost Trial. Yoriko Heianza, Dianjianyi Sun, Tiange Wang, Tao Huang, George A. Bray, Frank M. Sacks, Lu Qi. Diabetes Sep 2017, 66 (9) 2416-2423; DOI: 10.2337/db16-1482

Bitter taste genetics – the relationship to tasting, liking, consumption and health. Food Funct., 2014,5, 3040-3054. DOI: 10.1039/C4FO00539B

Genetic signature of differential sensitivity to stevioside in the Italian population. Risso D, Morini G, Pagani L, et al. Genes Nutr. 2014;9(3):401.

Taste Receptor Polymorphisms and Immune Response: A Review of Receptor Genotypic-Phenotypic Variations and Their Relevance to Chronic Rhinosinusitis. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2018.00064

Dislike of cilantro (coriander)

Allelic variation in TAS2R bitter receptor genes associates with variation in sensations from and ingestive behaviors toward common bitter beverages in adults. Hayes JE, Wallace MR, Knopik VS, Herbstman DM, Bartoshuk LM, Duffy VB. Chem Senses. 2010;36(3):311-9.

Genetic variation in a human odorant receptor alters odour perception. Keller A, Zhuang H, Chi Q, Vosshall LB, Matsunami H. Nature. 2007 Sep 27;449(7161):468-72. Epub 2007 Sep 16.

Ability To Detect Boar Taint in Pork

Differences by sex and handedness in right and left femur bone mineral densities. Sahin A1, Dane S, Seven B, Akar S, Yildirim S. Percept Mot Skills. 2009 Dec;109(3):824-30.

Left-handedness as a risk factor for fractures. Luetters CM, Kelsey JL, Keegan TH, Quesenberry CP, Sidney S. Osteoporos Int. 2003 Nov;14(11):918-22. Epub 2003 Oct 3.

Association between fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene rs9939609 A/T polymorphism and polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Liu AL, Xie HJ, Xie HY, et al. BMC Med Genet. 2017;18(1):89. Published 2017 Aug 21. doi:10.1186/s12881-017-0452-1

Impact of FTO genotypes on BMI and weight in polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Wojciechowski P, Lipowska A, Rys P, et al. Diabetologia. 2012;55(10):2636-2645.

Potential genetic polymorphisms predicting polycystic ovary syndrome. Chen Y, Fang SY.  Endocr Connect. 2018;7(5):R187-R195.

FTO genotype, dietary protein, and change in appetite: the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial. Huang T1, Qi Q, Li Y, Hu FB, Bray GA, Sacks FM, Williamson DA, Qi L. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 May;99(5):1126-30. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.082164. Epub 2014 Mar 12.

Dietary Protein Modifies the Effect of the MC4R Genotype on 2-Year Changes in Appetite and Food Craving: The POUNDS Lost Trial. Huang T, Zheng Y, Hruby A, et al.  J Nutr. 2017;147(3):439-444.

Biological Clocks and Rhythms of Anger and Aggression. Hood S, Amir S. Front Behav Neurosci. 2018;12:4. Published 2018 Jan 23. doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2018.00004

Nutrigenetics and Nutrimiromics of the Circadian System: The Time for Human Health. Víctor Micó, Laura Díez-Ricote and Lidia Daimiel. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 299; doi:10.3390/ijms17030299

Chronotype and energy intake timing in relation to changes in anthropometrics: a 7-year follow-up study in adults. Maukonen M, Kanerva N, Partonen T, Männistö S. Chronobiol Int. 2018 Sep 13:1-15. doi: 10.1080/07420528.2018.1515772.

Screening of clock gene polymorphisms demonstrates association of a PER3 polymorphism with morningness-eveningness preference and circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Hida A, Kitamura S, Katayose Y, Kato M, Ono H, Kadotani H, Uchiyama M, Ebisawa T, Inoue Y, Kamei Y, Okawa M, Takahashi K, Mishima K. Sci Rep. 2014 Sep 9;4:6309. doi: 10.1038/srep06309.

Polymorphisms in the circadian expressed genes PER3 and ARNTL2 are associated with diurnal preference and GNβ3 with sleep measures. Parsons MJ, Lester KJ, Barclay NL, et al. J Sleep Res. 2014;23(5):595-604.

Association between MC4R rs17782313 polymorphism and overeating behaviors. Yilmaz Z, Davis C, Loxton NJ, et al. Int J Obes (Lond). 2014;39(1):114-20.

Association between MC4R rs17782313 polymorphism and overeating behaviors. Yilmaz Z, Davis C, Loxton NJ, Kaplan AS, Levitan RD, Carter JC, Kennedy JL. Int J Obes (Lond). 2015 Jan;39(1):114-20. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2014.79. Epub 2014 May 14.

Serotonin‐transporter promoter polymorphism modulates the ability to control food intake: Effect on total weight loss. G. Bonnet, P. Gómez‐Abellán, B. Vera, J. F. Sánchez‐Romera, A. M. Hernández‐Martínez, S. Sookoian, C. J. Pirola, M. Garaulet, Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2017, 61, 1700494.

Genetic factors associated with iron storage in Australian blood donors. Ji Y, Flower R, Hyland C, Saiepour N, Faddy H.  Blood Transfus. 2018;16(2):123-129.

Behavioural changes, sharing behaviour and psychological responses after receiving direct-to-consumer genetic test results: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Kelly F. J. Stewart & Anke Wesselius & Maartje A. C. Schreurs & Annemie M. W. J. Schols & Maurice P. Zeegers. J Community Genet (2018) 9:1–18. DOI 10.1007/s12687-017-0310-z

Prevalence of positive coeliac disease serology and HLA risk genotypes in a multiethnic population of adults in Canada: a cross-sectional study. Jamnik J, Villa CR, Dhir SB, et al. BMJ Open 2017;7:e017678. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017678

Country, regional, and global estimates for lactose malabsorption in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Christian Løvold Storhaug*, Svein Kjetil Fosse*, Lars T Fadnes. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017; 2: 738–46.

Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Genetic Risk of Obesity.  Qibin Qi, Ph.D., Audrey Y. Chu, Ph.D., Jae H. Kang, Sc.D., Majken K. Jensen, Ph.D., Gary C. Curhan, M.D., Sc.D., Louis R. Pasquale, M.D., Paul M. Ridker, M.D., M.P.H., David J. Hunter, M.B., B.S., Sc.D., Walter C. Willett, M.D., Dr.P.H.,Eric B. Rimm, Sc.D., Daniel I. Chasman, Ph.D., Frank B. Hu, M.D., Ph.D., and Lu Qi, M.D., Ph.D. N Engl J Med 2012;367:1387-96. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1203039

Genetic predisposition to salt-sensitive normotension and its effects on salt taste perception and intake. Leta Pilic* and Yiannis Mavrommatis. British Journal of Nutrition (2018), 120, 721–731 doi:10.1017/S0007114518002027

The self-morningness/eveningness (Self-ME): An extremely concise and totally subjective assessment of diurnal preference. Turco M, Corrias M, Chiaromanni F, Bano M, Salamanca M, Caccin L, Merkel C, Amodio P, Romualdi C, De Pittà C, Costa R, Montagnese S. Chronobiol Int. 2015;32(9):1192-200. doi: 10.3109/07420528.2015.1078807. Epub 2015 Oct 9.

Chronotype, Sleep Behavior, and the Big Five Personality Factors. Christoph Randler, Michael Schredl, Anja S. Göritz SAGE Open July-September 2017: 1–9

The Epidemiology of Sleep and Obesity. Rachel P. Ogilvie, PhD, MPH and Sanjay R. Patel, MD, MS. Sleep Health. 2017 Oct; 3(5): 383–388.

The genetics of circadian rhythms, sleep and health. Jagannath A, Taylor L, Wakaf Z, Vasudevan SR, Foster RG. Hum Mol Genet. 2017;26(R2):R128-R138.

Circadian rhythm abnormalities. Zee PC, Attarian H, Videnovic A. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2013;19(1 Sleep Disorders):132-47.

Blocking nocturnal blue light for insomnia: A randomized controlled trial. Shechter A, Kim EW, St-Onge MP, Westwood AJ. J Psychiatr Res. 2018 Jan;96:196-202. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2017.10.015. Epub 2017 Oct 21.

Eating behaviour in obese patients with melanocortin-4 receptor mutations: a literature review. M Valette , F Bellisle , C Carette, C Poitou, B Dubern, G Paradis, S Hercberg, L Muzard, K Clement and S Czernichow. International Journal of Obesity (2013) 37, 1027–1035.

Association of melanocortin 4 receptor gene variation with satiation and gastric emptying in overweight and obese adults. Acosta A, Camilleri M, Shin A, et al. Genes Nutr. 2014;9(2):384.

Association between MC4R rs17782313 polymorphism and overeating behaviors. Yilmaz Z, Davis C, Loxton NJ, et al. Int J Obes (Lond). 2014;39(1):114-20.

Introducing Precision Addiction Management of Reward Deficiency Syndrome, the Construct That Underpins All Addictive Behaviors. Blum K, Gondré-Lewis MC, Baron D, et al. Front Psychiatry. 2018;9:548. Published 2018 Nov 27. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00548

Enhancement of Self-Monitoring in a Web-Based Weight Loss Program by Extra Individualized Feedback and Reminders: Randomized Trial. Hutchesson MJ, Tan CY, Morgan P, Callister R, Collins C. J Med Internet Res. 2016 Apr 12;18(4):e82. doi: 10.2196/jmir.4100.

Changes to dietary intake during a 12-week commercial web-based weight loss program: a randomized controlled trial. Hutchesson MJ, Collins CE, Morgan PJ, Watson JF, Guest M, Callister R.  Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jan;68(1):64-70

Participants in an online weight loss program can improve diet quality during weight loss: a randomized controlled trial. O'Brien KM, Hutchesson MJ, Jensen M, Morgan P, Callister R, Collins CE. Nutr J. 2014 Aug 9;13:82

Effectiveness of interventions with a dietary component on weight loss maintenance: A systematic reviewCollins CE, Neve MJ, Williams R, Young M, Morgan PJ, Fletcher K, Callister R. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports. 2013; 11(8): 317-414.

Changes to dietary intake during a 12-week commercial web-based weight loss program: a randomized controlled trial. Hutchesson MJ, C.E. Collins, P.J. Morgan, J.F. Watson, M. Guest and R. Callister. Eur J Clin Nutr, advance online publication, October 16, 2013.

Efficacy of Standard Versus Enhanced Features in a Web-Based Commercial Weight-Loss Program for Obese Adults, Part 2: Randomized Controlled Trial. Collins, C.E., et al, J Med Internet Res, 2013. 15(7): p. e140.

An 8-week web-based weight loss challenge with celebrity endorsement and enhanced social support: Observational Study. Hutchesson MJ, Collins CE, Morgan PJ, Callister R. J Med Internet Res, 2013. 15(7): p. e129.

A 12-week commercial web-based weight-loss program for overweight and obese adults: randomized controlled trial comparing basic versus enhanced features. Collins, C.E., et al., J Med Internet Res, 2012. 14(2): p. e57.

Behavioural factors related with successful weight loss 15 months post-enrolment in a commercial web-based weight-loss programme. Neve, M.J., P.J. Morgan, and C.E. Collins. Public Health Nutr, 2011: p. 1-11.

Weight change in a commercial web-based weight loss program and its association with website use: cohort study. Neve, M., P.J. Morgan, and C.E. Collins, J Med Internet Res, 2011. 13(4): p. e83.

Dropout, nonusage attrition, and pre treatment predictors of nonusage attrition in a commercial Web-based weight loss programNeve, M.J., C.E. Collins, and P.J. Morgan, J Med Internet Res, 2010. 12(4): p. e69.

Participant characteristics and reach of a commercial web-based weight loss program. Neve, M.J., P.J. Morgan, and C.E. Collins. Nutrition & Dietetics, 2010. 67(4): p. 267-274.

Evaluation of a commercial web-based weight loss and weight loss maintenance program in overweight and obese adults: a randomized controlled trial. Collins, C.E., et al. BMC Public Health, 2010. 10: p. 669.

Effectiveness of web-based interventions in achieving weight loss and weight loss maintenance in overweight and obese adults: a systematic review with meta-analysis.  Neve, M., et al., Obes Rev, 2010. 11(4): p. 306-21.

Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015-2020: Eighth Edition

Appendix 4. USDA Food Patterns: Healthy Mediterranean-Style Eating Pattern

Super Genes: Unlock the Astonishing Power of Your DNA for Optimum Health and Well-Being by Deepak Chopra M.D., Rudolph E. Tanzi Ph.D. 

DNA Diets Private report prepared for Digital Wellness. James A Levine MD PhD